For March, in which the Netherlands has the presidency of the UN Security Council, the MAP provides recommendations on Afghanistan, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Libya, Somalia, and South Sudan.
In the forthcoming mandate renewal for the UN Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA), the Council should maintain the existing references to women and girls in both preambular and operative paragraphs (S/RES/2344 (2017), OPs 5(e), 10, 12, 16, 18, 31), and further, add previously agreed-upon language back into the resolution, as well as strengthen provisions to ensure the mission can address women, peace and security (WPS) as a cross-cutting issue. The Council should:
- Call on the Government and its international partners to work alongside women’s organizations to develop clear procedures on strategies to (1) increase the number of women in the leadership and management of security sector reform (SSR), and (2) ensure a safe and enabling environment for women in the security sector.
- Call on the Government and its international partners to ensure women and women’s organizations are engaged in efforts to counter terrorism (CT) and violent extremism (CVE) (S/RES/2242 (2015), OP 13; S/RES/2250 (2015), OP 16; S/RES/2178 (2014), OP 16; S/PRST/2014/21; S/PRST/2015/3; S/PRST/2016/9).
- Add a provision to UNAMA’s mandate that calls on the mission to actively support the Government’s efforts in implementing its National Action Plan (NAP) on Resolution 1325 (2000), including in the development of institutional and accountability structures to implement and monitor the NAP (S/RES/2242 (2015), OP 2).
- Add a provision to UNAMA’s mandate that calls on the mission to prioritize activities and efforts to promote women’s protection and participation, mirroring the request to prioritize child protection activities.
- Call on the Government and international partners to increase efforts to support women’s participation in all aspects of peace and security decision-making, including in the forthcoming elections, particularly given the sustained violence against Afghan women leaders and human rights defenders (CEDAW/C/AFG/CO/1-2).
- Call on the Government to develop, in consultation with female members of the High Peace Council, clear procedures to engage women in peace negotiations and conflict resolution efforts (CEDAW/C/AFG/CO/1-2).
The Security Council is expected to renew the mandate and consider a report of the UN Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo (MONUSCO). The existing provisions of MONUSCO’s mandate related to WPS must be maintained (S/RES/2348 (2017), OPs 34(i)(b), 37). Further, the Council should (1) call for MONUSCO to support women’s participation in reconciliation processes, elections, and SSR; (2) include a provision in MONUSCO’s mandate to monitor threats to civil society organizations (CSOs) and restrictions on democratic space (S/RES/2122 (2013), OP 4); (3) support the Government’s ongoing review of the NAP on Resolution 1325 (2000) (S/RES/2242 (2015), OP 2); and (4) urge the Government and MONUSCO to prioritize the protection of women politicians, candidates, activities and human rights defenders in the implementation of the political agreement and the NAP, including through the revitalization of MONUSCO’s Gender Unit (CEDAW/C/COD/CO/6-7). Although women comprise 47% of the electorate, significant barriers to women’s representation and participation in political and security processes remain (S/2018/16). Further, significant concerns have been raised regarding the newly signed electoral law, which contravenes the full parity enshrined in the Constitution. The law could result in indirect discrimination, as it requires candidates to pay a non-refundable fee of $100,000 USD for the presidential election, $1,000 for legislative elections, $ 625 for provincial elections, and $ 313 for local elections, and to have a college degree or 5 years of professional experience. The law further hampers the participation of smaller political groups by increasing the threshold of representation at the national level to 1% of the votes, 3% at the provincial level and 10% at the local level. The restrictions to democratic space throughout the country, including the violent repression of peaceful protests in Kinshasa and other cities by security forces over the last two months, and the ongoing targeting, through judicial proceedings and other means, of civil society activists seeking to legitimately exercise their rights to freedom of expression, religion and peaceful assembly, should also be of concern to the Council (S/2017/565).
The Security Council will be considering the most recent report on the implementation of the mandate for the UN Support Mission in Libya (UNSMIL). The report and any briefings should provide information on the implementation of WPS provisions in UNSMIL’s mandate (S/RES/2376 (2017), OP 4). Further, there should be details regarding UNSMIL’s efforts to support women’s participation in electoral reform, democratic transition, national conferences, disarmament and arms control, conflict resolution, peacebuilding, and peace processes, as well as efforts to engage with women’s CSOs and protect women’s rights (S/RES/2323 (2016)). If there is no information on these efforts, the Council should follow-up and inquire about progress.
In its renewal of the mandate of the UN Assistance Mission in Somalia (UNSOM), the Council should:
- Mainstream gender as a cross-cutting issue in its mandate (S/RES/1325 (2000), OP 5).
- In view of the forthcoming universal elections in 2020, actively support the adoption by the Federal Government of Somalia of a legally binding provision to achieve the 30% quota for women’s representation in political decision-making bodies.
- Support women’s participation in all peace and security processes, through capacity-building and efforts which challenge gender norms that restrict gender sensitive behaviors within related institutions.
- Monitor and report on human rights violations, including sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) and targeting of human rights defenders.
- Reinforce the importance of strengthening accountability in the security sector, and underline UNSOM’s role, in supporting the implementation of the Human Rights and Due Diligence Policy (HRDDP) (S/RES/2106 (2013)).
- Regularly consult with CSOs, including women’s groups (S/RES/2122 (2013), OP 7(a)).
- Call for UNSOM to include information and analysis on the differential impact of violence perpetrated by state and non-state armed actors on the human rights of women and girls; and on how UN CT/CVE and other efforts could support women and women’s CSOs in their work to counter violence in all its forms (S/RES/2242 (2015), PP, OP 13).
The Security Council will be renewing the mandate for the United Nations Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS) after a short technical extension, in order to consider the findings of the strategic review (S/2018/143). SGBV continues to be a key protection concern within South Sudan; there must be improved protection and security measures for women and girls, both within and outside of protection of civilian (PoC) sites. In PoC sites, women’s access to resources and food security is inexorably linked with their physical security and integrity. As such, particular attention should be given to ways in which the mission can reduce the risks for women, particularly through livelihoods patrols, protective accompaniment and establishment of safe areas. In light of the unprecedented and deteriorating food insecurity situation across the country, the Security Council should acknowledge that lack of food, water and sanitation resources is further exacerbating the humanitarian crisis. In its renewal of the UNMISS mandate, the Council should maintain existing WPS provisions (S/RES/2327 (2016), OPs 7(a)(i), (a)(vi), (b)(ii), 14) and further explicitly call for adequate resourcing for civilian components of the mission including Gender Advisers, Protection of Civilians Advisers, Human Rights Officers and Community Liaison Assistants as vital to ensuring implementation of the overall mandate. Additionally, the Council should:
- Add a provision to the mandate requiring the mission to hold regular consultations with women leaders, women’s CSOs, and community members to ensure protection strategies, are responsive to women’s security concerns (S/RES/2327 (2016), OPs 7(a)(i)(v)(vi)(vii), (b)(i)(ii)(iii)).
- Add a provision to the mandate to ensure that disarmament, demobilization, reintegration (DDR) and SSR activities are gender-sensitive and inclusive of women (S/RES/2122 (2013), OP 4).
- Add a provision to the mandate calling on the mission to ensure women’s participation in its support for constitution-making, political and electoral processes (S/RES/2122 (2013), OP 4).
- Call for the Government and relevant international partners, as per resolutions 2117 (2013) and 2220 (2015), to facilitate women’s full and meaningful participation in all policymaking, planning and implementation processes to combat and eradicate the illicit transfer, destabilizing accumulation and misuse of small arms and light weapons in all its aspects, including through consultations with women’s CSOs.
- Call on all parties to ensure women’s full and effective representation and leadership in all conflict resolution, peacebuilding, and peace negotiations, including through the involvement of women’s CSOs (S/RES/2122 (2013), OPs 7, 8; S/RES/2242 (2015), OP 1).
- Add a provision calling on UNMISS to improve its capacity to conduct investigations of SGBV-related incidents in and around PoC sites and continue to strengthen regular and timely reporting on the human rights situation, including on patterns of SGBV.
- Add a provision calling on UNMISS to support the revitalization and implementation of the NAP on Resolution 1325 (2000) and the 2014 Joint Communiqué on the Prevention of Conflict-related Sexual Violence.
- Strengthen the participation of young women in public policymaking processes and empower women parliamentarian caucuses in order to better influence policymaking.
- Call on UNIMISS to support the implementation of the Maputo Protocol (2003), and the ratification of the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights (2005).