Monthly Action Points (MAP) for the Security Council: November 2019

For November, in which the United Kingdom has the presidency of the UN Security Council, the MAP provides recommendations on CAR, Iraq, Somalia, Sudan (Abyei), West Africa & the Sahel.

Central African Republic

As the Security Council prepares to consider the renewal of the mandate UN Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in the Central African Republic (MINUSCA), the Security Council should expand upon and strengthen the existing women, peace and security (WPS) provisions in the mandate and all other WPS-related references (S/RES/2448 (2018), OPs 3, 11, 16, 17, 32, 39(a)(iii), b(iii, iv, v), 40(b)(iv), (c)(i, ii), (d)(ii), 57). Specifically, the Council should:
  • Request those responsible for the implementation of the Political Agreement for Peace and Reconciliation in the CAR respect WPS provisions, and ensure that the work of the Executive Committee responsible for monitoring the implementation of the agreement is transparent, and that MINUSCA provide gender-sensitive technical support to those implementing the peace agreement (Political Agreement for Peace and Reconciliation in the CAR, Arts. 1g, 4d, 5c; Annex 1, Art. 2d, 5).
  • Explicitly list women and girls with disabilities and women human rights defenders as specific groups that should be protected under MINUSCA’s protection of civilians mandate (S/RES/2448 (2018), OP 39(a)) and require the mission to consult with women’s civil society organizations, humanitarian and human rights organizations in implementing a gender-sensitive strategy for protection of civilians, including when supporting the government in implementing the peace agreement.
  • Call on the Steering Committee responsible for establishing the Peace, Justice, Reparation, and Reconciliation Commission (CVJRR) to ensure all work is gender-sensitive and respects gender parity when establishing the latter. (S/RES/2448 (2018), OP 57; Political Agreement for Peace and Reconciliation in the CAR, Arts. 9, 10, 11).
  • Call on authorities to ensure all work is gender-sensitive, and gender parity is respected in all other bodies involved in the peace process, including, but not limited to, the National Implementation Committee (CMON), the Prefectural Implementation Committees (CMOP), and Local Peace Committees (CLP). (Political Agreement for Peace and Reconciliation in the CAR, Arts. 31, 32).
The Council should further call on the Government to fully implement the regional action plan for the Central African region for the implementation of Resolution 1325 adopted in May 2018, and to update its National Action Plan (NAP) on Resolution 1325 (2000) through a consultative process that includes the participation of women’s groups and ensures there is both political support and financing for implementation of any updated plan. Additionally, in the context of the African Initiative for Peace and Reconciliation in the CAR and the work of the Panel of Facilitators, the Council is urged to include new language calling on these processes to be inclusive, with particular attention given to the participation of women (S/RES/2448 (2018), OP 3). Despite the requirement to mainstream gender across all components of the mandate, analysis of past reports of the Secretary-General show that there is a lack of implementation. The Council should focus on holding senior leaders accountable for the performance and fulfillment of MINUSCA’s mandate, including its obligation to mainstream gender.

As the Security Council prepares to consider the renewal of the mandate UN Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in the Central African Republic (MINUSCA), the Security Council should expand upon and strengthen the existing women, peace and security (WPS) provisions in the mandate and all other WPS-related references (S/RES/2448 (2018), OPs 3, 11, 16, 17, 32, 39(a)(iii), b(iii, iv, v), 40(b)(iv), (c)(i, ii), (d)(ii), 57). Specifically, the Council should:

  • Request those responsible for the implementation of the Political Agreement for Peace and Reconciliation in the CAR respect WPS provisions, and ensure that the work of the Executive Committee responsible for monitoring the implementation of the agreement is transparent, and that MINUSCA provide gender-sensitive technical support to those implementing the peace agreement (Political Agreement for Peace and Reconciliation in the CAR, Arts. 1g, 4d, 5c; Annex 1, Art. 2d, 5).
  • Explicitly list women and girls with disabilities and women human rights defenders as specific groups that should be protected under MINUSCA’s protection of civilians mandate (S/RES/2448 (2018), OP 39(a)) and require the mission to consult with women’s civil society organizations, humanitarian and human rights organizations in implementing a gender-sensitive strategy for protection of civilians, including when supporting the government in implementing the peace agreement.
  • Call on the Steering Committee responsible for establishing the Peace, Justice, Reparation, and Reconciliation Commission (CVJRR) to ensure all work is gender-sensitive and respects gender parity when establishing the latter. (S/RES/2448 (2018), OP 57; Political Agreement for Peace and Reconciliation in the CAR, Arts. 9, 10, 11).
  • Call on authorities to ensure all work is gender-sensitive, and gender parity is respected in all other bodies involved in the peace process, including, but not limited to, the National Implementation Committee (CMON), the Prefectural Implementation Committees (CMOP), and Local Peace Committees (CLP). (Political Agreement for Peace and Reconciliation in the CAR, Arts. 31, 32).

The Council should further call on the Government to fully implement the regional action plan for the Central African region for the implementation of Resolution 1325 adopted in May 2018, and to update its National Action Plan (NAP) on Resolution 1325 (2000) through a consultative process that includes the participation of women’s groups and ensures there is both political support and financing for implementation of any updated plan. Additionally, in the context of the African Initiative for Peace and Reconciliation in the CAR and the work of the Panel of Facilitators, the Council is urged to include new language calling on these processes to be inclusive, with particular attention given to the participation of women (S/RES/2448 (2018), OP 3). Despite the requirement to mainstream gender across all components of the mandate, analysis of past reports of the Secretary-General show that there is a lack of implementation. The Council should focus on holding senior leaders accountable for the performance and fulfillment of MINUSCA’s mandate, including its obligation to mainstream gender.

Iraq

In its discussion of the situation in Iraq and the most recent report on the UN Assistance Mission in Iraq (UNAMI), the Council should consider the increased displacement from northern Syria and ensure that all responses and actions are informed by intersectional gender-sensitive conflict analysis, including gender-, age-, and disability-disaggregated data. With regards to the recent protests in Iraq, UNAMI should ensure the protection of civic space and the right of individuals to peacefully protest, including women activists, as well as full accountability for those responsible for disproportionate use of force against civilians – which has led to over 250 deaths and more than 6,000 injured. The Council should also consider the extent to which the mission is mainstreaming gender as a cross-cutting issue (S/RES/2470 (2019), OP 2(e), and inquire about progress in the critical areas of discussion from previous Security Council Informal Expert Group (IEG) on WPS meetings (S/2018/475). UNAMI should continue to follow-up on progress in ensuring women are fully and substantively participating in all decision-making, particularly regarding reforms developed in response to protestors’ demands. It is imperative that UNAMI report on any progress in developing the new NAP on Resolution 1325 (2000), and ensure it is developed through an inclusive, consultative process and has appropriate budgetary support for implementation and accountability.

Somalia

The Security Council is expected to consider a report on the UN mission in Somalia (UNSOM) and renew the mandate for the sanctions regime set out in Resolution 2444 (2018). When reviewing the sanctions, the Council should call on the panel of experts to mainstream gender as a cross-cutting issue throughout its work and in reporting, including in the context of monitoring the implementation of the arms embargo and the flow of small arms and light weapons (SALW), in line with the Council’s previous call for more information on gender and SALW (S/RES/2220 (2015), OP 26). In its discussion of the report on UNSOM, the Council should promote women’s equal and meaningful participation in all peace and security processes. Barriers and risks associated with women’s participation must be identified, discussed, and reflected in mission efforts. The Council should also integrate the recommendations from the August 2019 civil society briefer, Amina Arale, including the establishment of a protection mechanism to ensure women politicians and candidates can campaign without restriction or violence, especially during the intensified election period; as well as ensure continued the Somali Government’s implementation of the WPS agenda, including in the context of the NAP on Resolution 1325 (2000) and implementation of the Sexual Offences Bill. The Council should also pursue inquiry of efforts to expand equal access to justice beyond criminal prosecution, including through judiciary reform.

Abyei / Sudan

In the upcoming mandate renewal of the United Nations Interim Security Force for Abyei (UNISFA), the Council should maintain existing WPS provisions as laid out in Resolution 2469 (2019). More specifically, the Council should continue to urge the governments of Sudan and South Sudan to ensure the full and equal participation of women at all stages of reconciliation at the grass-roots level, in the peacebuilding process and intercommunity dialogue; acknowledge the ongoing efforts of NGOs in peacebuilding; and continue to request effective monitoring of human rights violations, including sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV), committed against women (S/RES/2469 (2019), OPs 18, 19, 26, 27). Additionally, the Council should request enhanced reporting on WPS and ask UNISFA to include gender-sensitive conflict analysis and gender-, age-, and disability-disaggregated data in all its reports. Finally, the Council should broaden its language on UNISFA’s support to women’s participation in all local, national, and regional peace processes, including in Community Protection Committees, and explicitly encourage meaningful cooperation between UNISFA and women’s groups.

Syria

The urgent political and humanitarian crisis unfolds in northern Syria, resulting in the displacement of nearly 200,000 people (OCHA); an estimated 450,000 people are at risk if all sides do not exercise maximum restraint and ensure safe, unhindered humanitarian access in line with international humanitarian law. The Council must call for rights-based, survivor-centered humanitarian action that is gender-responsive and provides immediate and non-discriminatory aid response and quality health services, including sexual and reproductive health services, to all affected communities. This means providing specialized staff trained in administering first-line support, clinical management of sexual assault and rape, mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS), identification of SGBV cases, and safe referrals in a manner that guarantees the safety, confidentiality, and privacy of survivors. Additionally, while acknowledging the launching of the Constitutional Committee on 30 October, the Council should encourage all parties to increase the participation of women, ensuring women are equally represented and can meaningfully participate in the committee and the broader political process. The meaningful dialogue and inclusion of Syrian women human rights defenders should be prioritized in the work of the Office of the Special Envoy, as well as all other multilateral processes. As a means of ensuring accountability, reporting must include analysis and information on efforts to support women’s meaningful participation (S/RES/2449(2018), OP 12.)

West Africa

In considering the latest report on the UN Office for West Africa and the Sahel (UNOWAS), the Security Council should inquire about the success in operationalizing the mandate of UNOWAS, particularly regarding provisions on WPS. The report should also include intersectional gender-sensitive conflict analysis of the regional implementation of the WPS agenda and the mission’s collaboration with Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) on a sub-regional plan of action on Resolution 1325 (2000). The report should also address any political and financial support provided or planned, which builds the capacity of women leaders in all areas to fully and regularly participate in peace and security discussions, particularly in the context of mediation processes and efforts to address SGBV.