When establishing an observer mission, in the context of a new peace agreement, the Council must ensure that gender is a crosscutting issue in the operation of the mission and the tripartite monitoring and verification mechanism. Throughout the work of the mission, there should also be ongoing and consistent consultation with women’s civil society organizations, including AfroColombian, indigenous and rural women’s organizations. There should be an effort to support and strengthen all previous efforts by the two parties to foster an inclusive peace process, and the mission should continue to work closely with the Gender SubCommittee and the group of gender experts. The Council should consider the following:
- The mission should encourage the full realization of the gender provisions of the peace accords, established by the gender sub-commission, including women’s meaningful participation in rural development, eradication of illicit drugs and political processes, and the rights of victims, including women and girls, to truth, justice, reparation and guarantees of nonrepetition.
- The political mission must specifically support security sector reform and, further, should ensure justice institutions are accessible and accountable to survivors of violence, including sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV).
- In consultation with women, indigenous and Afro-Colombian groups at national, regional, and local levels, the mission should establish readily accessible protection and reporting mechanisms to ensure there is transparency and accountability in the implementation of the ceasefire and final peace agreement, as well as opportunities to report instances of noncompliance, particularly in the context of demobilization.
- In its support for disarmament, demobilization and reintegration, attention must be paid to tailoring assistance to the particular needs of female ex-combatants, as well as women and girls from communities where former fighters resettle.
- In reconciliation and peacebuilding efforts, the needs and rights of women and girls must be at the forefront of the design and implementation of early-warning and ceasefire monitoring mechanisms (SCR 2261 (2016), OP 3).
- Monitoring teams would also have to monitor, investigate and report on the human rights situation, and consistently consult with women human rights defenders in the assessment of incidents and the preparation of reports.
- Ensure the mission meets the 20% baseline commitment for women’s participation in all its functions and positions by prioritizing the deployment of female observers and recruitment of women as civilian staff and UN Volunteers.
In its forthcoming mandate renewal for the UN Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH), it is vital for the Council to call for women’s full and equal participation and engagement in building Haiti’s future. This is particularly important in view of threats and harassment against women-led civil society organizations, including those calling for justice for SGBV. The Council should include provisions in the mandate which call on MINUSTAH to:
- Ensure substantive legal and sensitivity trainings on adequate investigation and prosecution of SGBV crimes, including violence motivated by sexual orientation or gender identity, and proper treatment of survivors for police, prosecutors, judges, new legislators and other newly elected and relevant Government officials who may interact with survivors.
- Provide technical assistance to support Haiti’s ability to pass and implement legislation addressing gender-based violence, including the Penal Code Revision Draft Law.
- Ensure gender-sensitive assistance services for survivors of sexual exploitation and abuse (SEA) by UN peacekeepers, and establish a transparent, survivor-centered and readily accessible mechanisms to hear claims for remedies.
- Provide logistical and technical expertise for the establishment of protection and relocation mechanisms for women human rights defenders, and expand relocation funds to include family members and dependents of those at risk.
In its consideration of a report on the United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq (UNAMI), the Security Council must urge accountability for serious human rights violations, including SGBV; ensure that UNAMI is regularly engaging with women’s organizations; and take concrete steps to support women’s participation in all peace and security processes. The Council should consider the following recommendations:
- Support the funding and effective implementation of Iraq’s National Action Plan (NAP) on SCR 1325 (2000) in consultation with civil society organizations, including peacebuilding and women’s organizations.
- Apply a gender lens to humanitarian planning and assistance efforts throughout the country, including ahead of the impending offensive in Mosul, particularly in the provision of medical care, ongoing psychosocial counseling and comprehensive sexual and reproductive health services, as mandated by SCR 2122 (2013), which includes access to emergency contraception and safe abortion services.
- Urge the Government of Iraq to clarify the shelter policy and allow Iraqi NGOs to operate shelters and provide much needed services to survivors of SGBV.
- Expand the scope of current documentation efforts to include other gender-based crimes including crimes against women as human rights defenders, LGBT persons and others who defy their gender ascribed roles.
- Urge the Government of Iraq to legally allow displaced women and girls to obtain Civil Status Identification documents without requiring verification of their identity by a male relative.
The Security Council will hold an open debate focused on progress made in implementing the women, peace and security (WPS) agenda over the previous year. For the WPS agenda to be fully realized, the commitments in past resolutions and the cumulative recommendations in all peace and security reviews need to be implemented. It is essential that the Security Council prioritize addressing the root causes of violence, including political and economic drivers of conflict, and the militarization of societies and grievances between states and populations that create conditions conducive to violent extremism, in addition to their impacts on women, men, girls and boys.
Over the first half of 2016, the Security Council was inconsistent in addressing women, peace and security issues across its work. Although most peacekeeping and political mission mandates maintained existing relevant language, weak provisions were not strengthened and attention to WPS in the context of crisis situations, such as Yemen, Syria and Burundi, was sporadic. Further, reporting to the Security Council continued to fail to meet basic expectations regarding gender analysis, inclusion of WPS information and sex and age disaggregated data. To address these gaps, the Council should be actively engaging the WPS agenda within the full scope of its work by implementing SCRs 2122 (2013) and 2242 (2015), including by considering the following recommendations:
- As per existing UN policy and guidance, as well as SCRs 2122 (2013) and 2242 (2015), all country-specific reporting should include: gender analysis; details regarding the way in which missions are implementing the WPS agenda in their own work, including analysis of barriers, challenges and opportunities for improving activities in the future; and recommendations on the ways in which the UN and government can better address women’s rights and support women’s participation. If this information is missing, Council members must follow-up with mission leadership and call for inclusion of these details in future reports and briefings. Further, Council members should actively and constructively participate in the Informal Expert Group in order to improve the flow of WPS information and analysis into the Council and hold mission leadership accountable.
- As per existing UN policy and guidance, as well as SCRs 2122 (2013) and 2242 (2015), every country-specific briefing and debate should include discussion on the gender differentiated impact of the situation; the role of women, men, girls and boys in the situation; and the ways in which the mission is meeting its WPS obligations. If this information is lacking, Council members should follow-up with specific questions including: what actions the mission is taking to mainstream gender in its own work and the current status of filling all related staff positions; the frequency and quality of the mission’s engagement with civil society organizations, specifically including women’s organizations; and challenges that the mission is facing in implementing WPS obligations and strategies for addressing those challenges.
- As per SCRs 2122 (2013) and 2242 (2015), the Council should invite women civil society representatives to participate in country-specific discussions as a way to ensure the Council is receiving a comprehensive picture of the situation. To date, the Security Council has still failed to invite any women civil society representatives to speak at country-specific meetings.